The World Bank also promoted privatization of national telecommunications, which afforded large multinational corporations the opportunity to purchase networks and expand operations in the Third World. Quantitatively, the internet has massively expanded the sheer volume of news items available to one person.
Early news networks
These agencies touted their ability to distill events into “minute globules of news”, 20–30 word summaries which conveyed the essence of new developments. Unlike newspapers, and contrary to the sentiments of some of their reporters, the agencies sought to keep their reports simple and factual. The wire services brought forth the “inverted pyramid” model of news copy, in which key facts appear at the start of the text, and more and more details are included as it goes along. The sparse telegraphic writing style spilled over into newspapers, which often reprinted stories from the wire with little embellishment. In a 20 September 1918 Pravda editorial, Lenin instructed the Soviet press to cut back on their political rambling and produce many short anticapitalist news items in “telegraph style”.
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With the addition of new communications media, afternoon newspapers have shut down and morning newspapers have lost circulation. In more and more cities, newspapers have established local market monopolies—i.e., a single newspaper is the only one in town. This process has accelerated since the 1980s, commensurate with a general trend of consolidation in media ownership.
Gazette – A gazzetta, a Venetian coin of little value, gave rise to the phrase gazzetta de la novita, “halfpennyworth of news,” which eventually gave us gazette. Wood, History of International Broadcasting , pp. 129–133, 132, 206–207. Pamela J. Shoemaker, “A New Gatekeeping Model”, from Gatekeeping ; reprinted in Berkowitz, Social Meanings of News , p. 57. “Simply put, gatekeeping is the process by which the billions of messages that are available in the world get cut down and transformed into hundreds of messages that reach a given person on a given day.” News making is the act of making the news or doing something that is considered to be newsworthy.
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Karen Rothmyer, “What really happened in Biafra? Why did themes such as mass starvation and genocide alternately surface and fade? A study of media susceptibility to public relations manipulation.” Columbia Journalism Review 9.3, Fall 1970. “A particularly lively forum for the exchange of news by word of mouth—the coffeehouse—flourished in England well after the development of the newspaper, and in some countries, the Coffeehouse has survived even the introduction of television.” The content and style of news delivery certainly have effects on the general public, with the magnitude and precise nature of these effects being tough to determine experimentally. In Western societies, television viewing has been so ubiquitous that its total effect on psychology and culture leave few alternatives for comparison. With the new interconnectedness of global media, the experience of receiving news along with a world audience reinforces the social cohesion effect on a larger scale.